Multi-dimensional, nuanced and subjective – measuring the perception of facial expressions
Humans can perceive multiple expressions, each one with varying intensity, in the picture of a face. We propose a methodology for collecting and modeling multidimensional modulated expression annotations from human annotators. Our data reveals that the perception of some expressions can be quite different across observers; thus, our model is designed to represent ambiguity alongside intensity. An empirical exploration of how many dimensions are necessary to capture the perception of facial expression suggests six principal expression dimensions are sufficient. Using our method, we collected multidimensional modulated expression annotations for 1,000 images culled from the popular ExpW in-the-wild dataset. As a proof of principle of our improved measurement technique, we used these annotations to benchmark four public domain algorithms for automated facial expression prediction.