E-ViLM: Efficient video-language model via masked video modeling with semantic vector-quantized tokenizer
To build scalable models for the challenging real-world tasks, it is important to learn from diverse, multi-modal data in various forms (e.g., videos, text, images). Amongst the existing works, a plethora of them have been focusing on leveraging large but cumbersome cross-modal architectures. Regardless of their effectiveness, larger architectures unavoidably prevent the models from being extended to realworld applications, so building a lightweight VL architecture and an efficient learning schema is of great practical value. In this paper, we propose an Efficient Video-Language Model (dubbed as E-ViLM) and a masked video modeling (MVM) schema, assisted with a semantic vector-quantized tokenizer. In particular, our E-ViLM learns to reconstruct the semantic labels of masked video regions, produced by the pre-trained vector-quantized tokenizer which discretizes the continuous visual signals into labels. We show that with our simple MVM task and regular VL pre-training modelings, our E-ViLM, despite its compactness, is able to learn expressive representations from Video-Language corpus and generalize well to extensive Video-Language tasks including video question answering, text-to-video retrieval, etc. In particular, our E-ViLM obtains obvious efficiency improvements by reaching competing performances with faster inference speed: i.e., our model reaches 39.3% Top-1 accuracy on the MSRVTT benchmark, retaining 91.4% of the accuracy of state-of-the-art larger VL architecture with only 15% parameters and 94.8% fewer GFLOPs. We also provide extensive ablative studies that validate the effectiveness of our proposed learning schema for E-ViLM.