Amazon Unveils Novel Alexa Dialog Modeling for Natural, Cross-Skill Conversations

Today, customer exchanges with Alexa are generally either one-shot requests, like “Alexa, what’s the weather?”, or interactions that require multiple requests to complete more complex tasks.

An Alexa customer planning a family movie night out, for example, must interact independently with multiple skills to find a list of local theaters playing a particular movie, identify a restaurant near one of them, and then purchase movie tickets, book a table, and perhaps order a ride. The cognitive burden of carrying information across skills — such as time, number of people, and location — rests with the customer.

“We envision a world where customers will converse more naturally with Alexa: seamlessly transitioning between skills, asking questions, making choices, and speaking the same way they would with a friend, family member, or co-worker,” says Rohit Prasad, Alexa vice president and head scientist. “Our objective is to shift the cognitive burden from the customer to Alexa.”

At Amazon’s re:MARS conference in Las Vegas, tomorrow’s vision arrived today when Prasad previewed a conversational night-out-planning experience that will be rolling out soon to customers. In the coming months, this and other multi-skill experiences will roll out to Alexa customers, initially in the U.S.

The night-out-planning experience requires Alexa to, among other things, resolve ambiguous references (“Are there any Italian restaurants nearby?”) and dynamically transition from one skill to another while preserving context (remembering the location of the movie theater in order to find close-by restaurants).

Enabling this new experience is a set of AI modules that work together to generate responses to customers’ questions and requests. With every round of dialog, the system produces a vector — a fixed-length string of numbers — that represents the context and the semantic content of the conversation.

With each update of the vector, an end-to-end, deep-learned conversational model generates a list of candidate actions that Alexa could take in response. Then, where necessary, the system fills in the candidate actions with specific values, such as movie times or restaurant names. The system then scores the actions and executes the one with the highest score.

This new approach to multi-turn dialog also includes a separate AI module whose task is to decide when to switch between different skills — which questions to pass to the restaurant search skill, for instance, and which to pass to the movie skill. Those switches can be reactive — as when a customer says, “Get me an Uber” after hearing a list of movie times — or proactive — as when Alexa follows up a movie ticket purchase request with the question “Should I book the tickets?”

Cross-skill_predictor.png._CB461671168_.png
In his talk at re:MARS, Rohit Prasad, Alexa VP and head scientist, said machine learning capabilities are advancing such that Alexa can predict a customer’s true goal from the direction of the dialogue and proactively enable the conversation flow across skills.

“With this new approach, Alexa will predict a customer’s latent goal from the direction of the dialog and proactively enable the conversation flow across topics and skills,” Prasad says. “This is a big leap for conversational AI.”

At re:MARS, Prasad also announced the developer preview of Alexa Conversations, a new deep-learning-based approach for skill developers to create more-natural voice experiences with less effort, fewer lines of code, and less training data than before. The preview allows skill developers to create natural, flexible dialogs within a single skill; upcoming releases will allow developers to incorporate multiple skills into a single conversation.

With Alexa Conversations, developers provide (1) application programming interfaces, or APIs, that provide access to their skills’ functionality; (2) a list of entities that the APIs can take as inputs, such as restaurant names or movie times; and (3) a handful of sample dialogs annotated to identify entities and actions and mapped to API calls. Alexa Conversations’ AI technology handles the rest.

Development_cycle.png._CB461671169_.png
In his talk at re:MARS, Prasad said hand coding of the dialog flow is replaced by a recurrent neural network that automatically models the dialog flow from developer-provided input, making it easier for developers to construct dialog flows for their skills.

“It’s way easier to build a complex voice experience with Alexa Conversations due to its underlying deep-learning-based dialog modeling,” Prasad said.

That’s largely because of AI technology that automatically generates simulated dialogs from the examples provided by the developer. Based on the developer’s sample data, the system represents the examples using a formal language that specifies syntactic and semantic relationships between words of a dialog. The representations can be converted back into natural language in many different ways, automatically producing dialog variations that are one to two orders of magnitude larger than the developer-provided data. These are used to train a recurrent neural network for modeling dialog flow.

More information about the Alexa Conversations developer preview can be found on the Alexa developers’ blog.

Related content

US, Virtual
The Amazon Economics Team is hiring Interns in Economics. We are looking for detail-oriented, organized, and responsible individuals who are eager to learn how to work with large and complicated data sets. Some knowledge of econometrics, as well as basic familiarity with Stata, R, or Python is necessary. Experience with SQL, UNIX, Sawtooth, and Spark would be a plus. These are full-time positions at 40 hours per week, with compensation being awarded on an hourly basis. You will learn how to build data sets and perform applied econometric analysis at Internet speed collaborating with economists, data scientists and MBAʼs. These skills will translate well into writing applied chapters in your dissertation and provide you with work experience that may help you with placement. Roughly 85% of interns from previous cohorts have converted to full time economics employment at Amazon. If you are interested, please send your CV to our mailing list at econ-internship@amazon.com.
US, WA, Seattle
Amazon internships are full-time (40 hours/week) for 12 consecutive weeks with start dates in May - July 2023. Our internship program provides hands-on learning and building experiences for students who are interested in a career in hardware engineering. This role will be based in Seattle, and candidates must be willing to work in-person. Corporate Projects (CPT) is a team that sits within the broader Corporate Development organization at Amazon. We seek to bring net-new, strategic projects to life by working together with customers and evolving projects from ZERO-to-ONE. To do so, we deploy our resources towards proofs-of-concept (POCs) and pilot programs and develop them from high-level ideas (the ZERO) to tangible short-term results that provide validating signal and a path to scale (the ONE). We work with our customers to develop and create net-new opportunities by relentlessly scouring all of Amazon and finding new and innovative ways to strengthen and/or accelerate the Amazon Flywheel. CPT seeks an Applied Science intern to work with a diverse, cross-functional team to build new, innovative customer experiences. Within CPT, you will apply both traditional and novel scientific approaches to solve and scale problems and solutions. We are a team where science meets application. A successful candidate will be a self-starter comfortable with ambiguity, strong attention to detail, and the ability to work in a fast-paced, ever-changing environment. As an Applied Science Intern, you will own the design and development of end-to-end systems. You’ll have the opportunity to create technical roadmaps, and drive production level projects that will support Amazon Science. You will work closely with Amazon scientists, and other science interns to develop solutions and deploy them into production. The ideal scientist must have the ability to work with diverse groups of people and cross-functional teams to solve complex business problems.
US, WA, Seattle
Amazon internships are full-time (40 hours/week) for 12 consecutive weeks with start dates in May - July 2023. Our internship program provides hands-on learning and building experiences for students who are interested in a career in hardware engineering. This role will be based in Seattle, and candidates must be willing to work in-person. Corporate Projects (CPT) is a team that sits within the broader Corporate Development organization at Amazon. We seek to bring net-new, strategic projects to life by working together with customers and evolving projects from ZERO-to-ONE. To do so, we deploy our resources towards proofs-of-concept (POCs) and pilot programs and develop them from high-level ideas (the ZERO) to tangible short-term results that provide validating signal and a path to scale (the ONE). We work with our customers to develop and create net-new opportunities by relentlessly scouring all of Amazon and finding new and innovative ways to strengthen and/or accelerate the Amazon Flywheel. CPT seeks an Applied Science intern to work with a diverse, cross-functional team to build new, innovative customer experiences. Within CPT, you will apply both traditional and novel scientific approaches to solve and scale problems and solutions. We are a team where science meets application. A successful candidate will be a self-starter comfortable with ambiguity, strong attention to detail, and the ability to work in a fast-paced, ever-changing environment. As an Applied Science Intern, you will own the design and development of end-to-end systems. You’ll have the opportunity to create technical roadmaps, and drive production level projects that will support Amazon Science. You will work closely with Amazon scientists, and other science interns to develop solutions and deploy them into production. The ideal scientist must have the ability to work with diverse groups of people and cross-functional teams to solve complex business problems.
US, MA, Westborough
Are you inspired by invention? Is problem solving through teamwork in your DNA? Do you like the idea of seeing how your work impacts the bigger picture? Answer yes to any of these and you’ll fit right in here at Amazon Robotics. We are a smart team of doers that work passionately to apply cutting edge advances in robotics and software to solve real-world challenges that will transform our customers’ experiences in ways we can’t even imagine yet. We invent new improvements every day. We are Amazon Robotics and we will give you the tools and support you need to invent with us in ways that are rewarding, fulfilling and fun. Amazon Robotics is seeking interns and co-ops with a passion for robotic research to work on cutting edge algorithms for robotics. Our team works on challenging and high-impact projects, including allocating resources to complete a million orders a day, coordinating the motion of thousands of robots, autonomous navigation in warehouses, identifying objects and damage, and learning how to grasp all the products Amazon sells. We are seeking internship candidates with backgrounds in computer vision, machine learning, resource allocation, discrete optimization, search, and planning/scheduling. You will be challenged intellectually and have a good time while you are at it! Key job responsibilities • Identifying creative solutions for challenging research problems in robotics and computer vision • Developing software solutions to test hypotheses and demonstrate new functionality • Prototyping concepts to collect data and measure performance • Writing code and unit tests and integrating code with other software and hardware components • Utilizing Amazon Robotics and Amazon engineering tools, processes and technologies • Delivering a final presentation to managers and engineers on the successes and challenges of their internship and the business value they have contributed
US, CA, Palo Alto
The Amazon Search team creates powerful, customer-focused search solutions and technologies. Whenever a customer visits an Amazon site worldwide and types in a query or browses through product categories, Amazon Search services go to work. We design, develop, and deploy high performance, fault-tolerant distributed search systems used by millions of Amazon customers every day. We’re seeking a Principal Scientist with a deep expertise in Search Science. Your responsibilities will include everything from developing and prototyping innovative machine learning, and deep learning algorithms to implementing, testing, and supporting full solutions in a production environment. We are looking for innovators who can contribute to advancing search technology on what’s scientifically possible while remaining committed to creating world-class products. Joining this team, you’ll experience the benefits of working in a dynamic, entrepreneurial environment, while leveraging the resources of Amazon.com (AMZN), Earth's most customer-centric company one of the world's leading internet companies. We provide a highly customer-centric, team-oriented environment in our offices located in Palo Alto, California. Key job responsibilities As a hands-on leader of this team, you’ll be responsible for defining key research questions, identifying relevant data, adopting or proposing innovative machine learning solutions conducting rigorous experiments, publishing results and working with the engineering team to deploy these solutions. As a strategic leader, you will identify investment opportunities, develop long term strategies, and propose, prioritize and deliver on goals. You’ll also participate in organizational planning, hiring, mentorship and leadership development. You will be technically fearless and with a passion for building scalable science and engineering solutions. You will serve as a key scientific resource in full-cycle development (conception, design, implementation, testing to documentation, delivery, and maintenance). About the team Starting in 2009, the Visual Search & Augmented Reality team has thus far launched many visual search solutions on the Amazon App that use computer vision and machine learning/deep learning to help customers complete their shopping missions more easily; multiple internal teams at Amazon (devices, Kindle, Seller services, etc.) also use our libraries and APIs to deliver solutions to their own customers. We are a full stack shop, and our team capabilities cover the whole solution spectrum, ranging across applied science, large scale engineering services, product management, UX design, and mobile app development for iOS and Android.
US, MN, Minneapolis
AWS Central Economics is an interdisciplinary team on the cutting edge of economics, statistical analysis, and machine learning whose mission is to solve problems that have high risk with abnormally high returns. Our team leverages the strengths of our scientists to build solutions for some of the toughest business problems here at Amazon AWS. We are looking for an exceptionally talented, seasoned, and motivated Economist to manage a team of economists and data scientists to drive the science for AWS. Key job responsibilities Manage a team of economists and data scientists to deliver actionable economic analyses to business leaders, provide leadership on the economics and science used in the analyses, and engage with business leaders to identify challenges AWS faces that call for in-depth economic analyses and to ensure the analyses have their intended impact.
LU, Luxembourg
&ltHire Relocation Requisition - not for posting> Provides insights to leadership on improving Supply Chain cost and Speed by using Data Science and Analytics techniques. Build Dashboards and models to industrialize these findings at scale.
US, VA, Arlington
The People eXperience and Technology Central Science Team (PXTCS) uses economics, behavioral science, statistics, and machine learning to proactively identify mechanisms and process improvements which simultaneously improve Amazon and the lives, wellbeing, and the value of work to Amazonians. We are an interdisciplinary team that combines the talents of science and engineering to develop and deliver solutions that measurably achieve this goal. We are looking for economists who are able to work with business partners to hone complex problems into specific, scientific questions, and test those questions to generate insights. The ideal candidate will work with engineers and computer scientists to estimate models and algorithms on large scale data, design pilots and measure their impact, and transform successful prototypes into improved policies and programs at scale. We are looking for creative thinkers who can combine a strong technical economic toolbox with a desire to learn from other disciplines, and who know how to execute and deliver on big ideas as part of an interdisciplinary technical team. Ideal candidates will work closely with business partners to develop science that solves the most important business challenges. They will work in a team setting with individuals from diverse disciplines and backgrounds. They will serve as an ambassador for science and a scientific resource for business teams, so that scientific processes permeate throughout the HR organization to the benefit of Amazonians and Amazon. Ideal candidates will own the data analysis, modeling, and experimentation that is necessary for estimating and validating models. They will work closely with engineering teams to develop scalable data resources to support rapid insights, and take successful models and findings into production as new products and services. They will be customer-centric and will communicate scientific approaches and findings to business leaders, listening to and incorporate their feedback, and delivering successful scientific solutions. Key job responsibilities Use causal inference methods to evaluate the impact of policies on employee outcomes. Examine how external labor market and economic conditions impact Amazon's ability to hire and retain talent. Use scientifically rigorous methods to develop and recommend career paths for employees. A day in the life Work with teammates to apply economic methods to business problems. This might include identifying the appropriate research questions, writing code to implement a DID analysis or estimate a structural model, or writing and presenting a document with findings to business leaders. Our economists also collaborate with partner teams throughout the process, from understanding their challenges, to developing a research agenda that will address those challenges, to help them implement solutions. About the team We are a multidisciplinary team that combines the talents of science and engineering to develop innovative solutions to make Amazon Earth's Best Employer.
US, WA, Seattle
The People eXperience and Technology Central Science Team (PXTCS) uses economics, behavioral science, statistics, and machine learning to proactively identify mechanisms and process improvements which simultaneously improve Amazon and the lives, wellbeing, and the value of work to Amazonians. We are an interdisciplinary team that combines the talents of science and engineering to develop and deliver solutions that measurably achieve this goal. We are looking for economists who are able to apply economic methods to address business problems. The ideal candidate will work with engineers and computer scientists to estimate models and algorithms on large scale data, design pilots and measure their impact, and transform successful prototypes into improved policies and programs at scale. We are looking for creative thinkers who can combine a strong technical economic toolbox with a desire to learn from other disciplines, and who know how to execute and deliver on big ideas as part of an interdisciplinary technical team. Ideal candidates will work in a team setting with individuals from diverse disciplines and backgrounds. They will work with teammates to develop scientific models and conduct the data analysis, modeling, and experimentation that is necessary for estimating and validating models. They will work closely with engineering teams to develop scalable data resources to support rapid insights, and take successful models and findings into production as new products and services. They will be customer-centric and will communicate scientific approaches and findings to business leaders, listening to and incorporate their feedback, and delivering successful scientific solutions. Key job responsibilities Use causal inference methods to evaluate the impact of policies on employee outcomes. Examine how external labor market and economic conditions impact Amazon's ability to hire and retain talent. Use scientifically rigorous methods to develop and recommend career paths for employees. A day in the life Work with teammates to apply economic methods to business problems. This might include identifying the appropriate research questions, writing code to implement a DID analysis or estimate a structural model, or writing and presenting a document with findings to business leaders. Our economists also collaborate with partner teams throughout the process, from understanding their challenges, to developing a research agenda that will address those challenges, to help them implement solutions. About the team We are a multidisciplinary team that combines the talents of science and engineering to develop innovative solutions to make Amazon Earth's Best Employer.
US, WA, Seattle
Amazon is looking for talented Postdoctoral Scientists to join our global Science teams for a one-year, full-time research position. Postdoctoral Scientists will innovate as members of Amazon’s key global Science teams, including: AWS, Alexa AI, Alexa Shopping, Amazon Style, CoreAI, Last Mile, and Supply Chain Optimization Technologies. Postdoctoral Scientists will join one of may central, global science teams focused on solving research-intense business problems by leveraging Machine Learning, Econometrics, Statistics, and Data Science. Postdoctoral Scientists will work at the intersection of ML and systems to solve practical data driven optimization problems at Amazon scale. Postdocs will raise the scientific bar across Amazon by diving deep into exploratory areas of research to enhance the customer experience and improve efficiencies. Please note: This posting is one of several Amazon Postdoctoral Scientist postings. Please only apply to a maximum of 2 Amazon Postdoctoral Scientist postings that are relevant to your technical field and subject matter expertise. Key job responsibilities * Work closely with a senior science advisor, collaborate with other scientists and engineers, and be part of Amazon’s vibrant and diverse global science community. * Publish your innovation in top-tier academic venues and hone your presentation skills. * Be inspired by challenges and opportunities to invent cutting-edge techniques in your area(s) of expertise.