Tight bounds on the simultaneous estimation of incompatible parameters
The estimation of multiple parameters in quantum metrology is important for a vast array of applications in quantum information processing. However, the unattainability of fundamental precision bounds for incompatible observables greatly diminishes the applicability of estimation theory in many practical implementations. The Holevo Cramér-Rao bound (HCRB) provides the most fundamental, simultaneously attainable bound for multiparameter estimation problems. A general closed form for the HCRB is not known given that it requires a complex optimization over multiple variables. In this work, we develop an analytic approach to solving the HCRB for two parameters. Our analysis reveals the role of the HCRB and its interplay with alternative bounds in estimation theory. For more parameters, we generate a lower bound to the HCRB. Our work greatly reduces the complexity of determining the HCRB to solving a set of linear equations that even numerically permits a quadratic speedup over previous state-of-the-art approaches. We apply our results to compare the performance of different probe states in magnetic field sensing and characterize the performance of state tomography on the code space of noisy bosonic error-correcting codes. The sensitivity of state tomography on noisy binomial code states can be improved by tuning two coding parameters that relate to the number of correctable phase and amplitude damping errors. Our work provides fundamental insights and makes significant progress toward the estimation of multiple incompatible observables.